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A Pomegranate-Inspired Design for Large-Volume-Change Lithium Battery Anodes

Stanford Reference:



Stanford researchers have designed a novel, pomegranate inspired, hierarchical structure which improves the energy density, cycle life, Coulombic efficiency, and cost efficiency of silicon-based anode for Li-ion, Li-O2 and Li-S batteries.
The prototype successfully demonstrated superior cycle life (1000 cycles with 97% capacity retention), low electrode/electrolyte contact area for improvement of Coulombic efficiency, and increased tap density. Furthermore, unprecedented stable cycling (100 cycles with 94% capacity retention) with high areal capacity (3.7 mAh/cm2), similar to the areal capacity of commercial Li-ion batteries have been achieved. The successful design principles developed here can be widely applied to other high-capacity Li battery electrodes.


Stage of Research:
  • Prototype successfully demonstrated
  • New features demonstrated:
    *1000 stable cycles at areal capacity around 0.3 mAh/cm2
    *Later Coulombic efficiency 99.87%
    *1st cycle Coulombic efficiency above 80% using Si-C composite
    *100 stable cycles at areal capacity above 3 mAh/cm2
    *Volumetric capacity above 1250 mAh/cc

  • Applications

    • Li-ion, Li-O2 , and Li-S batteries with high energy density, long cycle life, and low cost
    • Electric vehicles
    • Portable electronic devices


    • Advantages compared to existing Si-based anode materials:
      • Long cycle life at high mass loading (>3 mAh/cm2)
      • Wrapped secondary particles, low contact area with electrolyte, high 1st CE
      • Secondary particles with close packing, high tap density
      • Low-cost and scalable fabrication
      • Does not use expensive Si precursors or reagents during fabrication process
      • Close-packing secondary particles
      • Design innovations:
        • Internally accommodated volume expansion
        • Spatially confined solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation
        • Close-packing secondary particles


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    Date Released


    Licensing Contact

    Linda Chao, Senior Associate
    (650) 725-9408 (Direct)
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    Related Keywords

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